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Comoros Islands

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1 Comoros Islands le Mar 24 Mai - 0:13

Comoros Islands

By Jessica EL MOUJABBER

May 23rd,2011

Major actors : Comoros Islands-France


Situation : territorial conflict


Main Events:

Comoros became independent only in 1975, following a referendum on self-determination made by France, only Mayotte decided to remain in the bosom of the metropolis. (1)
The other three islands (Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan) formed the Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros.
The Comoros have become members of the United Nations under resolution 3385 (XXX) of 12 November 1975, which reaffirmed "the necessity of respecting the unity and territorial integrity of the Comoros archipelago, composed of islands of Anjouan, Grande Comore, Mayotte and Moheli. All member countries, including European countries, voted the resolution. France, former colonial power, did not object. (2)
Since 1995, Anjouan, which has autonomous status, proclaims a liaison with France. (3)
In 1997The islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared unilateral independence in a violent conflict. (4)
Once the crisis within the Union over the islands was over, the General Council adopted unanimously a resolution asking the French government to hold local referendums necessary for departmentalization. It was organized on March 29, 2009 and 95.2% of voters agreed that Mayotte will become the 101st French department in 2011. (5)
Since 2002 the Comoros archipelago is officially called the Union of Comoros, composed of the autonomous islands of Mwali (Moheli), Maori (Mayotte) Ndzuwani (Anjouan), N'gazidja (Grande Comore)


Countries and parties positions:

The Comoros islands defend the cause of the unity of the Comorian archipelago, the Union of Comoros, supported by the African Union (AU), judged the referendum "null and void" in since it hampers even more the prospect of a "reunification" of the archipelago. (6) The Mahorais believe the problem is already settled. People are realizing that the Comorian authorities have waived claim ownership of Mayotte to the archipelago. The documents signed by former President Azali Assoumani recognizing that there are two entities, that is to say, the Union of Comoros on one hand, Mayotte and the other, are there to prove it. We talk about partnership and collaboration to regulate migration flows. (7)


France has not shown a willingness to surrender its authority over Mayotte, and did not wish to engage in discussions with the Islands authorities and claimants did not indicate a willingness from its part to naturalize or re-colonize the islands.Comoros attempt to consolidate political stability between the semi-autonomous islands and the central government. (8)
• France reinforces its commitment to Mayotte in the referendum March 29, 2009 "Do you approve the transformation of Mayotte in a community called single department, governed by Article 73 of the Constitution and exercising the powers delegated to departments and regions of Overseas (9)

The General Assembly Unions
• According to the General Assembly, the referendum made by France is a violation of Resolution 1514 on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, and several other resolutions were adopted by challenging the French action. ( 10)
Resolutions:
• Resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960 on the "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples" 2621 (XXV) of 12 October 1970 containing the agenda for the full implementation of the statement. Resolutions 3161 (XXVIII) of 14 December 1973. (11)
• 3291 (XXIX) of 13 December 1974, which reaffirms the unity and territorial integrity of the Comoros archipelago and the inalienable right of its people to self-determination and independence. The United Nations has endorsed the request of the Comoros to access international sovereignty. Resolution No. 376 of October 17, 1975, voted unanimously (14 votes out of 15 as France did not vote)

Over 20 resolutions were passed by the UN, reaffirming all, the sovereignty of the State of Comoros and Mayotte and asked France to withdraw from the island.
In particular, Resolution No. 31 / 4 21 October 1976 which "strongly condemns the presence of France in Mayotte, which is a violation of national unity, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the independent Republic of Comoros (12)


The African Union

• The African Union judged within the 1975s , that is to say, before independence, the French presence in Mayotte as illegal. Since June 2007, the tension between Anjouan and the Comoros institutions was increasing, the federal government, led by President Ahmed Abdallah Sambi, turned to the African Union (AU) and the international community, which has spared no support. An operation was conducted by the African Union in the form of landing in Anjouan on 25/03/2008. Indeed, it is not a peacekeeping operation to restore peace but by the strength of the legal and constitutional order qualifies as the African Union. (13)

• The African Union has been involved in seeking a political solution and the return to democracy in the Comoros (14).


Sources :

(1) AYAD Christophe, «D Day» sur l'île d'Anjouan http://www.liberation.fr/monde/010177300-d-day-sur-l-ile-d-anjouan, 26/03/2008 à 02h50

(2) Issa Said, Le contentieux de l’Ile comorienne de Mayotte: La France à l’épreuve du mépris du droit international http://www.legavox.fr/blog/issa-said/contentieux-comorienne-mayotte-france-epreuve-2784.htm, 26/07/2010

(3) AYAD Christophe, «D Day» sur l'île d'Anjouan http://www.liberation.fr/monde/010177300-d-day-sur-l-ile-d-anjouan, 26/03/2008 à 02h50

(4) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1070727.stm; Tuesday, 23 November 2010

(5) ) Bernard Grollier Un vrai chantier!, (à La Réunion), http://www.lepoint.fr/archives/article.php/331608,) Le Point.fr - Publié le 02/04/2009 à 00:00
(6) Mayotte sera le 101e département français, Le oui l'a emporté au référendum sur la départementalisation avec 95,2% des voix. Le taux de participation s'élève à environ 60%.http://www.liberation.fr/politiques/0101558812-mayotte-sera-le-101e-departement-francais , Politiques 29/03/2009 à 20h10.
(7) Mohamed Inoussa , Le contentieux de l’Ile comorienne de Mayotte: « On a l’impression que le gouvernement a rendu les armes » Youssouf Moussa , http://www.comores-web.com/article/le-contentieux-de-lile-comorienne-de-mayotte-on-a-limpression-que-le-gouvernement-a-rendu-les-armes-youssouf-moussa.html, 14/05/2011 a 4h10
(8) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1070727.stm
(9)Rémi Carayol, Etre français dans les Comores Départementalisation sous tension à Mayotte
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2009/06/CARAYOL/17229 , juin 2009.
(10) Résolution adoptées sur les rapports de la Quatrième Commission, http://membres.multimania.fr/tomdsm/res3292fr.pdf
(11) Résolution adoptées sur les rapports de la Quatrième Commission, http://membres.multimania.fr/tomdsm/res3292fr.pdf
(12) Issa Said, Le contentieux de l’Ile comorienne de Mayotte: La France à l’épreuve du mépris du droit international http://www.legavox.fr/blog/issa-said/contentieux-comorienne-mayotte-france-epreuve-2784.htm, 26/07/2010
(13) AYAD Christophe, «D Day» sur l'île d'Anjouan http://www.liberation.fr/monde/010177300-d-day-sur-l-ile-d-anjouan, 26/03/2008 à 02h50
(14) Militias fighting on Comoros' rebel island http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/africa/9812/08/comoros.01/index.html?iref=allsearch(,Reuters contributed to this report.)


References :

Books
• Alain DESCHAMPS , Les Comores d'Ahmed Abdallah: mercenaires, révolutionnaires et coelacanthe, Editions Karthala, 2005.
• FAO, Irrigation in Africa in figures, 1995.
• Dietmar ROTHERMUND, The Routledge companion to decolonization, Routledge, 2006.
• Pascal HUE, Les îles de l'Océan Indien : Comores, Madagascar, Maurice, Réunion, Seychelles : bibliographie réalisée à partir de la banque de données Ibiscus triée par grands domaines; pour le compte du Ministère français de la coopération et du développement, Paris, Ibiscus, 1991.
• MAHAMOUD Ahmed Wadaane, Mayotte : le contentieux entre la France et les Comores, Paris, l'Harmattan, 1992.
• France. Secrétariat d'Etat à l'outre-mer, Réflexions sur l'avenir institutionnel de Mayotte / rapport au Secrétaire d'État à l'outre-mer, sous la dir. de François BONNELLE, Paris, la Documentation française, 1998.
• ORAISON, André, Le droit à l'autodétermination des Mahorais , Les Dossiers du Centre d'études administratives. Série "Études doctrinales et de jurisprudence" ; n.16, Centre universitaire de la Réunion, 1983.
• Mayotte dans la République : actes du colloque de Mamoudzou, 14, 15 et 16 septembre 2002 / publiés en partenariat par la Collectivité départementale de Mayotte et par l'Université de la Réunion ; [organisé par le] Centre de recherche juridique (CRJ), Université de la Réunion sous la direction de Laurent Sermet, Jean Coudray, Paris, Montchrestien , 2004

THESIS
• Farouk Ahmed et Ahmed Ibrahim, Trajectoires migratoires : les comoriens entre leurs iles et Marseille, Montpellier I 2010.
مراجع
 مصطفى الزباخ، الحضارة الإسلامية في جزر القمر، منشورات المنظمة الإسلامية للثقافة والعلوم "اسسكو"1415هـ -1995م.
رسالات جامعية
• محمد ذاكر حسن السقاف، استعمار جزر القمر 1843-1915م، رسالة ماجستير في التاريخ والحضارة الإسلامية ،جامعة امدرمان الإسلامية.
• عبد الله سيد علي، دور إعلام جزر القمر في تقوية الروابط مع الدول العربية دراسة وصفية تحليلية لفترة 95-1999م)، رسالة ماجستير، جامعة إفريقيا العالمية، 2000م.
• يوسـف أحمد امْبَامَا، دور الثقافة والحضارة الإسلامية في جزر القمر في دفع مسيرة تعليم اللغة العربي، إشراف الأستاذ الدكتور عمر يوسف حمزة، جامعة الدول العربية، المنظمة العربية للتربية والثقافة والعلوم، معهد الخرطوم الدولي للغة العربية، 2004م.
INTERNET SITES
• Site Internet “Skyrock”, http://comores-info.skyrock.com
• Site Comores Web, www.comores-web.com, Le contentieux de l’Ile comorienne de Mayotte: « On a l’impression que le gouvernement a rendu les armes », interview de Youssouf MOUSSA, 9 OCTOBRE 2010. http://www.comores-web.com/article/le-contentieux-de-lile-comorienne-de-mayotte-on-a-limpression-que-le-gouvernement-a-rendu-les-armes-youssouf-moussa.html
• http://www.auce-comores.com/ar/viewpage.php?page_id=8
o Site Internet de l’Ambassade de l’Union des Comores au Caire
• Version française: http://www.auce-comores.com/fr/
• http://wikiwix.com/cache/?url=http://www.mayotte.pref.gouv.fr/depot/departementalisation/conseil_des_ministres_du_14_janvier_09.pdf&title=conseil%20des%20ministres%20du%2014%20janvier%202009
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2009/06/MICHALON/17230 , Thierry Michalon
• http://www.comores-online.com/Comores-infosweb/Sommaire/dossier78.htm
• CM/Res.1152 (XLVIII)RESOLUTION ON THE QUESTION OF THE COMORIAN ISLAND OF MAYOTTE
• http://www.africa-union.org/Official_documents/council%20of%20minsters%20meetings/com/31CoM_1988b.pdf

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