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Somalia, a failed State?

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1 Somalia, a failed State? le Mar 1 Mar - 1:57

Matthieu Karam
2/28/11
Somalia, a failed State?


1- Major Actors:
- Ethiopia (1) - Uganda (2) - Burundi- Kenya- Yemen- Comoros Islands- Eritrea (3) (States bordering the country)
- United States (1992) - France- Philippines- Japan- Italy- Germany- China (Concerned by the piracy and hostage taking) (4), United Kingdom- Norway- Tanzania (Concerned by the “Contact Group”) (5)

2- Type of Situations:
- Internally: coup d’état, secession (Somaliland in 1991), civil war, corruption (6)…
- Internationally and regionally: clashes and fighting with the international forces (UN, AU) and foreign forces (US, Ethiopia, Uganda), piracy off the Somali coast (7)
- Violations of International Humanitarian Law, violations of Human Rights (enlistment of child soldiers, violence against women, torture…), mercenaries, exodus, high terrorist risks (8)

3- Main Events:
- From 1969 till 1991: socialist government in power resulting from a coup d’état lead by Mohammed Siad Barre, which brings some kind of stability (9).
- Regime collapses in 1991: a civil war takes place, involving opposing factions and clans. A multinational force of the UN intervenes in 1992, to stabilize the situation. The UN’s forces are attacked by Mohammed Farah Aidid’s militia, leading the United States to send troops to Somalia in 1992-1993 (among these, Delta Force troops). UN and American troops withdraw from Somalia, after being proved ineffective (10).
- A political vacuum follows, and militia’s warlords take control over the capital, Mogadishu (10).
- Since 2004, the TFG (Transitional Federal government) is formed, without any control on the divided country (11).
- 2006: The Islamic Courts take over the Capital (after being formed in 1996) (11).
- 2007: Ethiopian forces enter Somalia and drive out the Islamic Courts from the Capital. Their action, according to Ethiopian officials, is motivated by a will to push back armed forces from their borders. Kenya does the same. Three years later, Al Shebabs (backed by Al-Qaeda) take over the capital (12).
- Since 2006: Somali piracy targets cargo and military ships from several nationalities (7).
- Hezbollah, (a Lebanese party and armed resistance) might have recruited Somali mercenaries in his war against Israel, in July 2006, in exchange for military training and salaries.

4- Countries and Parties positions:
Countries:
- Ethiopia and Eritrea support either the Islamic Courts or the TFG, according to the other country’s alliance (military support, where the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia also supports the Islamic Courts) (12), (3).
- The United States are more concerned about the situation in Somalia, fearing it would become a second Afghanistan and a stronghold to Al-Qaeda forces, according to Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Hillary Clinton (13).
- The International Community takes action against Somali piracy, considered as a major threat (14).
- UN’ Secretary General’s special representative denounces “the worst humanitarian situation in Africa” (15).
- The AU (African Union) and the LAS (League of Arab States) demand an immediate withdrawal of the Ethiopian armed forces in Somalia, in order to encourage dialogue (16).
Parties:
- 1992: Somali factions demand the withdrawal of all the foreign armed forces (17).
- Somali government denounces foreign interferences in matters of armament, in particular those of Eritrea, and demands armed forces from the AU and the UN (3), (18).
- Al Shebabs commit a massacre in Uganda, in response to what they consider interference in their country from Uganda (19).
- Somali Parliament demands military forces from its neighboring countries (20).
- Somali minorities seek recognition of their status in the Constitution (21).
- Somali leaders ask the UN to send armed forces, considering it to be a remedy to terrorism (22).

5- National action:
- The Somali parliament votes the Shariaa Law, considering it to be the only solution against terrorism (23).
- Al Shebabs resist to foreign military forces, occupying more than half of the country (24).

6- International action:
International organizations concerned:
- NATO: Anti-Piracy off the African Horn’s coasts since November 2008 (25).
- Combined Task Force: since 2002, involved in an international anti-piracy mission (25).
- UN: since 1992, humanitarian missions (HCR…) and UNOSOM (United Nations military forces in Somalia) (26).
- AU: AMISOM (African Union’s military forces in Somalia) (27).
- UE: EUTM (European Union Training Mission) concerning Somali governmental forces (25).
- Al-Qaeda: presence of troops in Somalia affiliated with Al-Qaeda.
United Nations’ Security Council’s resolutions concerning Somalia:
- 1960: 141- 1992: 751- 767- 775- 794- 1993: 865- 885- 886- 878- 1994: 946- 953- 954- 2001: 1356- 2002: 1407- 1425- 2003: 1474- 1519- 2004: 1558- 2005: 1587- 1630- 2006: 1676- 1724- 1725- 2007: 1744- 1766- 1772- 2008: 1801- 1811- 1814- 1816- 1831- 1838- 1844- 1846- 1851- 1853- 2009: 1863- 1872- 1897- 2010: 1910-1918-1950


Sources :
(1): Beirut, 12/27/06, Naharnet web site
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&0279D832FB38F1A9C22572510059A3EC
(2): Beirut 7/12/2010, Naharnet web site http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/TheWorld/8C9D7BF295E1F8B5C225775E006CCDE2?OpenDocument
Christophe Ayad, daily French newspaper Libération
http://www.liberation.fr/monde/0101646712-l-ouganda-percute-par-le-chaos-somalien
(3): Daily French newspaper Le Monde
http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=956309
(4): Naharnet website, Beirut 2/25/07
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&2825013253D0CE04C225728D0057A083

Philippe Leymarie, monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique, November 2008,
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2008/11/LEYMARIE/16470
(5) : monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique, November 2008
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2008/11/A/16471
(6): Naharnet web site, Beirut, 1/12/07
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&44AE5597789E3E1CC2257261003156BA
Gérard Prunier, monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique October 2010,
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2010/10/PRUNIER/19778
Hassane Zeroukyd, daily French newspaper L’Humanité, 8/25/2010
http://www.humanite.fr/node/451981
(7): Naharnet web site, Beirut 1/8/09
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&60E1085E83D3A44EC2257538003EAECC
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/story/385848FEB699C37EC225743C005A3812?OpenDocument 5/1/08
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&2825013253D0CE04C225728D0057A083 2/25/07

Gérard Prunier, monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique, September 2006,
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2006/09/PRUNIER/13917
Daily French newspaper Le Figaro, 11/4/2010,
http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/2010/11/04/01003-20101104ARTFIG00774-lang-veut-somaliser-les-proces-de-pirates.php
(8) : Naharnet web site, 10/27/06
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&34E7C19D2116529CC2257214002F21DF
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&CD36AA6D28EC4AF7C2257227002D49F4 11/15/06
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&41FE7FBF7082D5C5C22575EF0033612F 7/10/09
Daily French newspaper Le Monde and French press agency AFP, 12/22/08,
http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2008/12/22/somalie-un-genocide-qui-ne-dit-pas-son-nom_1134245_3212.html
Daily French newspaper Le Figaro, 11/15/10
http://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/2010/11/15/97001-20101115FILWWW00372-risque-terroriste-la-somalie-en-tete.php
(9) : web site CIA Wordlfactbook, 12/13/10
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html
(10) : daily French newspaper Le Monde, 12/11/92
http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=430023
Gérard Prunier, monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique, September 2006
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2006/09/PRUNIER/13917
(11) : Gérard Prunier, monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique, September 2009,
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2006/09/PRUNIER/13917
(12) : Naharnet web site, 12/27/06
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&0279D832FB38F1A9C22572510059A3EC
Hassane Zerouky, daily French newspaper L’Humanité, 8/25/10
http://www.humanite.fr/node/451981
(13) : Naharnet web site 8/6/09
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&00A1B5C1FCCE8BCCC225760A00425814
(14) : monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique November 2008
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2008/11/A/16471
(15) : daily French newspaper Le Monde 3/22/08
http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=1029501

(16) : Naharnet web site, 12/27/06
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&0279D832FB38F1A9C22572510059A3EC
(17) : daily French newspaper Le Monde, 12/11/92
http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=430023
(18) : Naharnet web site, 6/29/07
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&D566CCF89DE6B65CC225730900263EFD
(19) : daily French newspaper La Libération
http://www.liberation.fr/monde/0101646712-l-ouganda-percute-par-le-chaos-somalien
(20) : Naharnet web site, 6/20/09
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&B18C24EA90F6A024C22575DB003973E8
(21) : daily English newspaper published in Lebanon, The Daily Star, 11/25/2010
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_ID=10&article_ID=121815&categ_id=2#ixzz16oEnnOl0
(22) : Naharnet web site, 6/29/07
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&D566CCF89DE6B65CC225730900263EFD
(23) : Naharnet web site, 4/18/09
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&A9ADF9EDBDD90E26C225759C003D002
(24): Christophe Ayad, daily French newspaper La Libération 7/13/10
http://www.liberation.fr/monde/0101646713-au-lieu-d-affaiblir-les-shebab-on-les-a-renforces
(25): Monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2008/11/A/16471
American Press Agency AP, and the website DjibNews 6/13/09
http://djibnews.com/djibnews/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=643&Itemid=99999999
(26) : Gérard Prunier, monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique, September 2009
http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2006/09/PRUNIER/13917
(27) : monthly French newspaper Le Monde Diplomatique and the French Press Agency AFP, 21/10/2010, and the weekly French press Le Point
http://www.lepoint.fr/monde/l-union-africaine-demande-a-l-onu-un-blocus-aerien-et-naval-de-la-somalie-21-10-2010-1252852_24.php
(28) : Naharnet website 5/1/08
http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/story/385848FEB699C37EC225743C005A3812?OpenDocument
(29) : United Nations’s web site http://www.un.org/fr/documents/scres.shtml)




Bibliography:
- Amnesty International, « Somalie : Droits de l’Homme, une longue crise », Association pour les éd. francophones d’Amnesty International, 1988
- GAILLARD Jean-Louis, « Somalie : le peuple de Pount », L’Harmattan, 1988
- PELIZZARI Elisa, « Possession et thérapie dans la Corne d’Afrique », L’Harmattan, 1997.
- CERULLI Enrico, « Somalie : Droit Coutumier », Institut de sociologie Solvay, Université libre de Bruxelles. Centre d’Histoire et d’ethnologies juridiques.
- ALIOU BARRY Mamadou, « Guerres et trafic d’armes en Afrique : approche géostratégique », L’Harmattan, 2006
- Somalie, Ministère de l’Information et de l’Orientation Nationale, « Somalie : Cinq ans de progrès révolutionnaire »

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